Getting to Know Roosters: A Basic Guide

This article explores many of the basic questions one might have if they are considering adding a rooster to their flock of chickens.

When Do Roosters Start Mating?

Roosters commence their mating behavior between 4 and 5 months of age, marking the onset of their sexual maturity.

Depending on the breed, roosters are sexually mature at 4 to 5 months of age and are ready to mate. Within the first year, they reach the height of their reproductive cycle, which lasts for years.

The beginning of the mating process happens when roosters engage in a courtship dance to attract their potential mates before the actual mating occurs.


During this captivating dance, they display their physical beauty and skills to catch the hen’s attention.
This involves wing flicking, croaking serenades, and circling the hen with a stiffened wing. If the hen is impressed, she will signal to the rooster her readiness by flattening herself out and getting ready for the mount.

Once the hen signals her readiness, the mating process begins. The rooster leaps onto her back in a maneuver called “threading.” He then uses his beak to grab the hen’s neck and lowers himself, sliding his tail beneath her.

Without penetration, the sperm is deposited onto the female’s cloaca opening, where the hen takes it in for fertilization to occur. Unlike humans, roosters do not have a penis, and their testicles are internal. After this brief encounter, both the hen and rooster go about their daily business.

During the remainder of the rooster’s day, he finds other female hens to mate.
A rooster has a favorite hen, but he will try to mate with the entire flock.

Roosters can maintain their sexual maturity for several years, with their peak reproductive period occurring within the first year of their lives. After 50 weeks (almost a year), their reproductive abilities begin to decline slightly. Nevertheless, they can continue to mate and fertilize eggs for several more years.

Throughout the breeding season, roosters mate several times daily, ensuring a steady supply of fertilized eggs. A rooster’s sperm count is highest in the early morning.

Roosters take a break from mating during the cold winter months and this period of rest is considered the “off-season”. During the colder winter months, both hens and roosters tend to reduce their mating activity.

Reduced daylight hours and temperature are two variables influencing this natural slowdown in mating, which lowers reproductive activity.

If a rooster is three years of age or older, they are regarded as old.
Raising roosters and hens, along with knowing when roosters will start mating, can maximize the chances of producing fertilized eggs.

 How Do Roosters Fertilize Eggs?

Roosters fertilize eggs by cloacal mating, where the sperm is passed to the hen through a “cloacal kiss”. The hen squats into position, and the rooster mounts her, places his tail underneath her, and transfers the sperm from his cloaca to her cloaca. The sperm migrates into the hen’s oviduct to fertilize the egg.

Roosters and hens both have a cloaca, which is the common opening for excretion and reproduction.

Roosters have testes that produce sperm but do not have a penis.
The rooster’s sperm is transferred to the cloaca through his papilla, an internal equivalent of a penis.

Hens have only one ovary that produces eggs. The egg travels down the oviduct for fertilization.

The magic of fertilization begins in the spring when daylight increases, which triggers hormonal changes in chickens. These hormones, like androgen, estrogen, and progesterone, are responsible for egg production and broodiness.

During the breeding season, roosters show their interest in hens through a courtship dance. They drop a wing, do a fancy footwork routine, and even offer tidbits of food to attract the ladies. Hens evaluate the rooster’s qualities before allowing mating.

When a hen is ready to mate, the male rooster mounts the female hen as she positions a submissive squat. He balances and stands on her back, using his beak to hold her neck feathers to establish dominance.

Roosters and hens both have cloacas. Once their cloacas align, the rooster transfers his sperm to the hen through an act called the “cloacal kiss”. The sperm then travels up the hen’s oviduct, where it fertilizes the egg.

Once the rooster’s sperm fertilizes the egg in the infundibulum of the oviduct, the genetic material combines, forming a zygote. The embryonic development process begins, including the formation of albumin, the eggshell, and the bloom.

If the hen herself incubates the fertilized egg for 21 days or if the egg is placed in an incubator, the fertilized egg grows into a chick.

Roosters can mate multiple times a day, but the early morning is when they have the highest sperm count. A single mating can potentially fertilize the hen’s eggs for several days, ensuring a steady supply of fertilized eggs during the breeding season.

The intriguing journey of poultry reproduction and how roosters fertilize eggs for chicken reproduction is a fascinating process.

Do Roosters Have Penises?

Roosters do not have an external penis like mammals, but they do have the internal equivalent, called a papilla. Sperm exits from the papilla, clings to the cloaca, and is passed to the hen during the cloacal kiss without penetration.

In place of the outward penis that mammals have, roosters have an inside organ called a papilla. During copulation, the rooster releases his sperm through the papilla to his cloaca.

Both male and female birds have a cloaca, which is a single opening that serves as the terminal part of the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

The absence of an external penis in roosters is a distinctive feature of the evolved avian reproductive systems.

During mating, roosters and hens engage in a “cloacal kiss”, which facilitates the passage of sperm from the male to the female.

When male and female birds touch their cloaca together during mating, sperm is transferred from the male’s cloaca to the female’s cloaca through seminal fluid. The sperm then moves up the female’s reproductive canal to fertilize the eggs.

Once the sperm is transferred and makes its way into the hen’s reproductive tract, it is not immediately used for fertilization. Instead, there are specialized, dedicated structures called sperm storage tubules in the hen that provide a safe environment to preserve the sperm until it is needed for fertilization. This sperm storage mechanism allows hens to fertilize eggs even when they have not recently mated with a rooster.

The papilla is a small bump inside the cloaca where the semen exits the vas deferens of the testies to the rooster’s cloaca before being transferred from the rooster to the hen. It is important to note that the papilla does not extend outside of the rooster’s body; however, it remains internally tucked inside.

When Do Roosters Start Crowing?

On average, roosters start crowing at around four to five months of age, although there is variation, with some crowing as early as a couple of months, while others may remain silent for almost a year.

Roosters normally begin crowing at the age of four to five months; however, some cockerel breeds begin crowing as early as two months, while others may take nearly a year before they start crowing.

During this period, they develop their saddle feathers (long pointed lower back feathers), grow their comb (the fleshy crest on their head), and exhibit distinct male behaviors. These secondary sexual characteristics are part of their maturing process as they transition into adulthood.

Young roosters, like human babies learning to speak, need time to find their crowing voices since this process does not happen overnight.

Initially, their crowing voice sounds like an exhaled wheeze, and as it gradually evolves, it turns into several syllables, followed by a somewhat half-hearted strained crow, before they master the full-fledged “cock-a-doodle-do.”

A cockerel is a young male chicken, and as it begins to crow, the sound it makes is called a cockerel crow. As it matures, it will develop into an adult rooster with a crow familiar to most.

Roosters can crow consistently, but the frequency of crowing depends on various factors. Roosters crow especially in the morning; however, they may crow throughout the day, less frequently during the afternoon and evening.

Factors such as their age, individual personalities, the presence of hens, and environmental stimuli influence the frequency of crowing.

Some roosters are naturally more vocal than others; therefore, the level of crowing can differ from one rooster to another within the same flock. Also, lower-ranking roosters may decide to remain mute, realizing they cannot win a fight, while more dominant ones flaunt their vocals with vigor.

Roosters crow for several purposes, and the main ones include:

  • Challenging Other Males: Crowing serves as a way for roosters to assert dominance and challenge other males in the vicinity. It is a declaration of territory and status.
  • Attracting Females: A resounding crow is also a rooster’s way of trying to impress the ladies. Hens are known to be attracted to a strong and confident crower, signifying good genes.
  • Maintaining Contact with Other Groups: Crowing helps roosters keep in touch with members of their flock or neighboring groups. It is a form of communication that allows them to stay connected and alert to their flock to signal potential threats.
  • Sounding an Alarm: When faced with danger, such as a hawk hovering overhead, roosters may also let out a piercing scream to alert their flock to run for cover and hide.

This gradual crowing progression as a rooster ages provides ample time for homeowners to decide what to do with their male chickens, whether it is rehoming them, considering them for the dinner table, or integrating them carefully into the flock.

Are Roosters Good to Eat?

Not only are roosters good to eat, they are preferred over hens in some cultures. Rooster meat provides all of the nutritional value of a hen but has less intermuscular fat, making it taste more gamey, similar to dark turkey meat.

Roosters are healthy and safe to eat. Rooster meat is a great source of protein and provides essential micronutrients like B vitamins and zinc.

In terms of taste and nutritional composition, rooster meat is comparable to hen meat; however, it is less commonly used as a meat option because it has less intramuscular fat and is known to be slightly tougher in texture.

This dark lean meat has a distinct and intense flavor, often described similarly to dark turkey meat. The main culinary difference lies in the distribution of fat in their bodies. Roosters tend to have more fat just beneath the skin, making it easier to remove during preparation. This results in lean meat that can be tough if not cooked correctly. Hens, on the other hand, have more intramuscular fat, making their meat more tender.

In many cultures worldwide, rooster meat is esteemed in various global cuisines and is considered a delicacy, even preferred over that of hens.

Roosters are particularly well-suited for stews and slow-cooking dishes to ensure tenderness, such as coq au vin, a tasty French recipe. This slow and gentle cooking process is preferred to tenderize and prepare rooster meat.

Additionally, rooster bones and meat can be used to create nutritious chicken stock.
If you are feeling adventurous, you can try eating a rooster’s comb, a delicacy popular in France and Italy.

High-heat methods like frying and grilling can make rooster meat tough, stringy, and gamey.

Roosters are mostly raised on farms, as they are not usually allowed in urban areas due to local laws and restrictions.

Whether one likes the flavor of rooster meat comes down to personal preference. Although some enjoy the distinct natural flavor, others find it overpowering and choose to mask the taste with seasonings.

Can Roosters Eat Layer Feed?

Roosters can eat layer feed; however, their protein requirements are higher than what layer feed provides, so it is not the ideal food source for them. Layer feed contains more calcium for egg laying, which roosters do not need and can result in kidney damage for them.

Roosters can eat layer feed, although layer feed is optimized for egg-laying hens as it is rich in calcium. Roosters do not require this calcium surplus, as they do not engage in egg production.

The protein content in standard layer feed is approximately 15–17% and does not meet the additional protein requirements of adult roosters to stay fit and healthy. Providing them with a diet enriched with at least 18% protein from pellets or crumbles is ideal for optimal health.

If you want to ensure that your roosters are getting enough protein, consider feeding them a feed blend designed for roosters .
This will cater to a rooster’s specific dietary needs without causing any imbalance in the flock.

Layer feed is packed with all the nutrients and extra calcium the egg-laying hens need for healthy egg production and overall well-being.

Excessive calcium intake by both roosters and hens can cause kidney damage. These symptoms manifest as pale combs and dehydration.

Those who support a uniform feeding schedule for all birds should be cautious to avoid overfeeding non-laying chickens with calcium, which can lead to kidney problems. While some roosters can get by on layer feed, it is not the best option for them in the long run.

Check out my other posts on Backyard Chickens

Enjoy Your Roosters

They are Very Interesting Creatures!

Elizabeth Donaldson

Hi Everyone! I have always loved our backyard and have been fascinated with all the wildlife living there. I am especially amazed by the skill, strength, and beauty of hummingbirds. I hope this article answered your questions.

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