Massachusetts Hummingbirds: 6 Awesome Documented Species

This article identifies all hummingbirds documented as seen in Massachusetts and where they are seen in the state. It further identifies if that specific hummingbird species is a year-round resident, a seasonal visitor, or a rare vagrant hummingbird seen in Massachusetts.

Which Species Of Massachusetts Hummingbirds Are Found In The State?

There are six species of hummingbirds documented as seen in Massachusetts.
Documented Massachusetts hummingbirds, listed in order of frequency seen are Ruby-throated, Rufous, Allen’s, Broad-billed, Calliope and Black-chinned hummingbirds.

These are the Massachusetts statistics at the end of 2023, as reported by eBird.org.
Click the “Documented” link below for the current Massachusetts stats.

Hummingbirds:Number seen:Documented:
Ruby-throated103,408Documented
Rufous548Documented
Allen’s 57Documented
Broad-billed43Documented
Calliope34Documented
Black-chinned19Documented
Total Seen:104,109

These 6 hummingbird species are found in Massachusetts and are further classified into three groups:
Year-round residents, Seasonal visitors, and Rare/Vagrant visitors.

Hummingbird:Year-Round, Seasonal, Rare/Vagrant
Ruby-throatedSeasonal
RufousRare/Vagrant
Allen’sRare/Vagrant
Broad-billedRare/Vagrant
CalliopeRare/Vagrant
Black-chinnedRare/Vagrant

For more information on Massachusetts hummingbirds: Read my article: Massachusetts Hummingbird Migration

There are no hummingbirds classified as year-round residents in Massachusetts.

This hummingbird classification is defined as year-round residents residing in Massachusetts 365 days a year.

Contrary to popular belief, hummingbirds can withstand far lower temperatures than most people would expect.

Some banded hummingbirds have been observed at temperatures as low as -9 degrees Fahrenheit with a wind chill of -36 degrees Fahrenheit, according to eBird.org.
See my article: 3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

There is only one Massachusetts hummingbird classified as a seasonal hummingbird, which is the Ruby-throated hummingbird.

Hummingbirds that fit within this category are those that migrate through Massachusetts on a spring or fall emigration basis.

Hummingbirds move south to spend the winter in Mexico and Central America in the fall, after migrating north in the spring to reproduce.

Due to their preference, an ailment, or advanced age, certain seasonal hummingbirds may spend the whole winter in the state.

Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds:

RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD – (Archilochus colubris)

Conservation Status: Least concerned
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Genus: Archilochus
Species: A. colubris

Scientist Carl Linnaeus of Sweden is credited with giving the Ruby-throated hummingbird its scientific name. He initially classified the species as “Trochilus colubris.” Its name was revised more than a century later when German botanist Ludwig Reichenbach classed it as “Archilochus colubris,” which is now its scientific name and means “sky spirit/sun-god bird” or “top thief.”

Male Ruby-throated hummingbirds:
The beautiful iridescent blood-red gorget of male Ruby-throated hummingbirds ends at the neck.
His distinctive features are black wings, a light gray underbelly, and a dull metallic green topside.

The Ruby-throated hummingbird is a tiny species of hummingbird, measuring 2.8 to 3.3 inches in length and weighing less than 4.5 grams, or two U.S. dimes.
They live for three to five years on average. 

The metal plate that shields the wearer’s throat during combat to prevent injuries is the inspiration behind the name of the gorget on a male hummingbird.

This name is acceptable and fitting to characterize the physical characteristics of male hummingbirds, since they fight fiercely for their own territory.
Read my article: Hummingbird Gorgets Explained

Male Ruby throat 1 OHIO
Male Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Photo by: Rekha Pawar
Male Ruby throat 2 OHIO
Male Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Photo by: Rekha Pawar

Female Ruby-throated hummingbirds:
Ruby-throated hummingbird females are usually larger than males, with a white throat stippled with light spots.
Ruby-throated hummingbird’s life expectancy is roughly three to five years.

The oldest female Ruby-throated hummingbird on record, at nine years old, is nearly twice as old as the male life expectancy.
See my article: Hummingbird Parents: (Mating to Nesting)

Female Ruby throat 3
Female Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Photo by: Dgen.photos

Note: The pollen on her head and beak. This female Ruby-throated hummingbird has been busy pollinating and drinking nectar from flowers to sustain her high metabolism.

Female Ruby throated 1 kevs birdsnstuff FL
Female Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Cuphea ignea – Cigar Plant
Photo by: Kevin Walsh

Juvenile Ruby-throated hummingbirds:
Ruby-throated hummingbird juveniles, both male and female, have a white throat with faint stippling, just like their mother.

As the males become older, they start to show some color around their necks, and finally their stronger red throat feathers take center stage and proudly show off a vibrant gorget.

Juv Male Ruby 1 FL
Juvenile Male Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Photo by: Dgen.photos

Note: The throat feathers are slowly coming in, displaying a few dots of color near the neckline and showing the first stages of adolescence.

Juv Ruby throat 2 girlkitty MN
Juvenile Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Photo by: MaryLou Ziebarth
Juv Male Ruby throated 1 MN WITH BEE
Juvenile Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Photo by: MaryLou Ziebarth

Note: This juvenile Ruby-throated hummingbird is struggling with a bee or wasp situation at the feeder.
See my article: Bees On My Hummingbird Feeder: (9 Tips To Get Rid of Them)

Baby Ruby-throated hummingbirds:
Baby Ruby-throated hummingbirds are easily identified by their undertail coverts, which are white fluffy feathers near their bottom that will disappear as they age.
See my article: Baby Hummingbirds: (Egg to Fledgling)

Juv Baby Ruby throated 2 OHIO
Baby Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Photo by: Rekha Pawar

Note: The down feathers near the baby’s bottom are newly white and fluffy.

Observe the great fat reserves they have amassed from the feedings of their devoted mother’s, which will help them get through puberty.

Baby Ruby throated 1 mz13hummingbirds
Baby Ruby-Throated Hummingbird 
Photo by: Mz13hummingbirds

To see the current sighting map of Massachusetts’s Ruby-throated hummingbirds, click the link.

Hear the sounds of the Ruby-throated hummingbird (Cornell Lab of Ornithology link).

99% of all Massachusetts hummingbird sightings will be Ruby-throated hummingbirds.
On average, out of 10,000 hummingbird sightings in Massachusetts, 9,933 will be of the Ruby-throated hummingbird.

The Ruby-throated hummingbird migrates via two different routes in the spring and fall.

The first migration route takes them directly, via the Gulf of Mexico, southwest to Mexico, where they travel nonstop until they reach Central America for the winter.

Over 500 miles is the flight distance over the Gulf of Mexico. Despite being the direct “short” route, these birds must overcome many difficulties.
The total direct flight from Boston, Massachusetts to Panama City, Panama is 2,355 miles.

Not being able to rest, not having access to food or fuel, and needing to steer clear of the severe tropical Atlantic hurricanes while traveling to their destination are some of the challenges faced when flying over the Gulf of Mexico.

To exacerbate the situation, they migrate during the night or are conducting a “Red-eye flight,” depending on your point of view.

Even though both sexes double their body fat before beginning their arduous transoceanic migratory pattern across the Gulf of Mexico, researchers think that males’ energy consumption is more taxing due to their small stature.

The second land migration path is 4,644 miles long and follows the Gulf of Mexico’s shoreline. Even though there are fewer guarantees of food sources along the way, taking the “long” route gives them the chance to stop and replenish.

Scientists are unclear and continue to investigate why one group of birds would prefer to take one route over the other.
Read my article: Hummingbird Migration in Massachusetts

The majority of people are unaware of how tolerant hummingbirds are of chilly weather.

According to eBird.org, through branding practices in Wisconsin, the Ruby-throated and Rufous hummingbirds have been documented surviving in temperatures of -9F and wind chills of -36F.
Read my article: 3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

o provide the many hummingbirds that spend the winter in Massachusetts access to life-sustaining nectar, several Massachusetts hummingbird enthusiasts keep their hummingbird feeders up all winter long.

This altruistic deed also supplies nectar to other migrating species that are too injured or elderly to travel.
Read my article: 11 DIY Ways to Keep Hummingbird Nectar From Freezing

The Ruby-throated hummingbird is a common sight in parks, gardens, and backyards. It prefers open forests. Except for the breeding season, when they become ferociously territorial and hostile against hummingbirds of other species, they are solitary birds. 

Despite their aggressive nature, these hummingbirds are eaten by predators like dragonflies, big crustaceans, praying mantises, and orb-weaver spiders.
Read my article: 10 Common Things That Kill Hummingbirds

Nine years and one month was the oldest known living female Ruby-throated hummingbird, found during a capture and release banding operation in West Virginia.
Read my article:  3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

There are five Massachusetts hummingbirds classified as rare or vagrant hummingbirds. They are Rufous, Allen’s, Broad-billed, Calliope and Black-chinned hummingbirds.

Hummingbirds that live in a group outside of their typical geographic range are classified as belonging to this category.

These hummingbird species not only span a vast range of distinct geographic areas, but they are also known to occasionally interbreed, giving rise to hybrids.

Although they are not in their usual range, reports of seeing these hummingbirds in Massachusetts have been made.

Rufous Hummingbirds:

RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD – (Selasphorus rufus)

Conservation Status: Near threatened
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Genus: Selasphorus
Species: S. rufous

The Latin word rubrum, which means “red,” is the source of the Rufous hummingbird’s name due to its reddish-brown color.

Male Rufous hummingbirds:
The orange-red gorget of a male rufous hummingbird is iridescent, and their tail and sides have a rusty hue. Their underside is beige to white, and their bill is black.

Along with chocolate brown dorsal feathers, males can also have green plumage with green spots on their rustic-looking backs or on the summit of their heads.

They weigh 3.2 grams and range in length from 2.8 to 3.5 inches.

The metal plate that shields the wearer’s throat during combat to prevent injuries is the inspiration behind the name of the gorget on a male hummingbird. 

This name is acceptable and fitting to characterize the physical characteristics of male hummingbirds, since they fight fiercely for their own territory.
Read my article: Hummingbird Gorgets Explained

Jace Rufous 1 WA
Male Rufous Hummingbird
Photo by: jace_the_bird_nerd

Note: The iridescent orange-red gorget.

Male Rufous 4 OR
Male Rufous Hummingbird
Photo by: Kevin Walsh

Note: The gorget appears chocolate brown in this lighting, however, you can still see a glimmer of his iridescent orange-red gorget with some hints of yellow.

Female Rufous hummingbirds:
The female Rufous hummingbird is less colorful than the male because it lacks a gorget and iridescent feathers.

In the wild, confusion may arise, though, because certain females have stippling or color specs along their throat line that resemble juvenile characteristics.

They are slightly larger than the males in anticipation of producing offspring.
See my article: Hummingbird Parents: (Mating to Nesting)

Female Rufous OR 1
Female Rufous Hummingbird
Photo by: Kevin Walsh
Female Rufous rwf1954 CA
Adult Female Rufous Hummingbird
Photo by: Bob Free

They have one of the northernmost breeding ranges of any hummingbird in the world; migrating north from Mexico and nesting as far north as Alaska to breed during the summer months.
They are polygamous and will mate with several partners in a season.
Read my article: Hummingbird Parents: (Mating to Nesting)
Read my article: Baby Hummingbirds: (Egg to Fledgling)

Juvenile Rufous hummingbirds:
In the wild, juvenile Rufous hummingbirds and Allen’s hummingbirds are nearly identical in terms of color and behavior.

Therefore, range rather than appearance is used to establish identity.
The juvenile male Rufous’ rustic appearance is attributed to the iridescent orange dots on their neck.

Juv Rufous 2 OHIO
Juvenile Male Rufous Hummingbird
Photo by: Rekha Pawar

Note: The throat feathers are slowly coming in, displaying a few dots of color near his neckline and showing the first stages of adolescence. 

Juv Rufous 3 OHIO
Juvenile Male Rufous Hummingbird
Photo by: Rekha Pawar
Juv Rufous 4 OHIO
Juvenile Male Rufous Hummingbird
Photo by: Rekha Pawar

Note: Preening flight feathers is an important daily routine to maintain hygiene and to keep the feathers flexible, strong, in alignment, and parasite-free.

Baby Rufous hummingbirds:
Baby Rufous hummingbirds are easily identified by their undertail coverts, which are white fluffy feathers near their bottom that will disappear as they age.
See my article: Baby Hummingbirds: (Egg to Fledgling)

To see the current sighting map of Rufous hummingbirds in Massachusetts, click the link.

Hear the sounds of the Rufous hummingbird (Cornell Lab of Ornithology link).

0.53% of all Massachusetts hummingbird sightings will be Rufous hummingbirds.
On average, out of 10,000 hummingbird sightings in Massachusetts 53 will be the Rufous hummingbird.

Of all the birds in the world, Rufous hummingbirds migrate within the United States for the longest period of time. Every year, they traverse 3,900 miles in a clockwise manner around western America.

This migratory pattern during the seasons coordinates their arrival perfectly while catching nectar and blooming flowers throughout the year, fueling their bodies for their long journey.

In order to support a healthy migration, hummingbird enthusiasts are very beneficial when they cultivate blooming plants to draw hummingbirds and supply feeders with homemade hummingbird nectar.

These friendly environments offer and guarantee safe trips in addition to a dependable haven for relaxation and refueling while on the road.

A large number of Rufous hummingbirds will choose to move south to Mexico rather than stay in Massachusetts for the winter. Hummingbirds, however, can withstand far lower temperatures than most people think.

According to eBird.org, through branding practices in Wisconsin, the Rufous and Ruby-throated hummingbirds are documented surviving in temperatures of -9F and wind chills of -36F.
See my article: 3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

Many Massachusetts hummingbird admirers leave hummingbird feeders up all winter long to provide life-nourishing nectar to some winter seen residents: the Rufous, Allen’s and Black-chinned hummingbirds. 

This selfless act also provides nectar to other injured or older hummingbirds that are unable to migrate.
See my article: 11 DIY Ways to Keep Hummingbird Nectar From Freezing

When it comes to other hummingbirds and animals, Rufous hummingbirds are fiercely possessive and hostile. They are known for being aggressive and bold, driving large birds and rodents away from their favorite feeders in addition to other hummingbirds.
See my article: Why Hummingbirds Chase Each Other: Is it Friend or Foe?

Male Rufous DIVE Bob Free CA
Adult Male Rufous Hummingbird
Photo by: Bob Free

It has even been observed that female mothers may attack squirrels and chipmunks that approach their nest too closely.

Due to their remarkable memory, Rufous hummingbirds have been observed to search for an abandoned hummingbird feeder years after it has been taken down.
Read my article: Hummingbird Adaptation and Remarkable Ability to Locate Food

Because of their unparalleled flying acrobatics, Rufous hummingbirds are fierce competitors at feeders, outmaneuvering all other species.

Rufous hummingbirds easily hybridize and cross-breed with other hummingbird species, such as Anna’s hummingbirds.

IUCN Red List classifies the Rufous hummingbird as “near threatened” because of habitat destruction in the Pacific Northwest.

In British Columbia, during a banding operation, the oldest living Rufous hummingbird was documented at 8 years and 10 months old.
Read my article:  3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

Allen’s Hummingbirds:

ALLEN’S HUMMINGBIRD – (Selasphorus sasin)

Conservation Status: Least concerned
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Genus: Selasphorus
Species: S. sasin

The scientific name of the Allen’s hummingbird is Selasphorus sasin.
The common name of the Allen’s hummingbird is in commemoration of Charles Andrew Allen (1841-1930), an American collector and taxidermist. 

Male Allen’s hummingbirds:
Male Allen’s hummingbirds are green-backed with a green forehead and rust-colored flanks, rump, and tail. When their tail feathers are fanned out you can see their chocolate-colored tips. 

The gorget of the male Allen’s hummingbird is an iridescent orange-red, however, in darker lighting, it can appear chocolate brown.
Allen’s hummingbirds are 3.3 inches to 3.5 inches in length and weigh 2-4 grams.

The metal plate that shields the wearer’s throat during combat to prevent injuries is the inspiration behind the name of the gorget on a male hummingbird.

This name is acceptable and fitting to characterize the physical characteristics of male hummingbirds, since they fight fiercely for their own territory.
Read my article: Hummingbird Gorgets Explained

Male Allens 1 inthewildwithrickCA
Male Allen’s Hummingbird
Photo by: IntheWildwithRick
Male Allens 2 inthewildwithrick CA
Male Allen’s Hummingbird
Photo by: IntheWildwithRick

Note: The iridescent orange-red gorget.

Female Allen’s hummingbirds:
The female Allen’s hummingbird is less colorful than the male because it lacks the iridescent gorget. In the wild, confusion may arise because certain females have stippling or color specs along their throat lines that resemble juvenile characteristics.
See my article: Hummingbird Parents: (Mating to Nesting)
See my article: Baby Hummingbirds: (Egg to Fledgling)

Female Allens 1 inthewildwithrick CA
Female Allen’s Hummingbird
Photo by: IntheWildwithRick
Humm parents Mate to Nest
Female Allen’s on Nest
Photo by: Aaron Gomperts

Juvenile Allen’s hummingbirds:
Both male and female juvenile Allen’s hummingbirds first resemble adult females until the male starts to develop the characteristic iridescent feathers of this species of hummingbird. 

In the field, they are nearly identical to Rufous hummingbirds due to their striking similarity in colors and disposition.
Therefore, range rather than appearance is used to establish identity. 

DSC01134 Male juv Allens WATERMARK use
Juvenile Male Allen’s Hummingbird 

Note: This juvenile male Allen’s hummingbird is protecting a feeder while perching on a tomato cage.

You will see that he still has some stippling around his throat and some fluffy white down feathers near his bottom.

He appears to be in the early stages of adolescence because a full gorget has not yet developed

DSC00654 crop WATERMARKED
Juvenile Male Allen’s Hummingbird

Note: Depending on the lighting, the gorget may appear chocolate brown.

Additionally, you will see that he still has some fluffy white down feathers near his bottom, indicating that he is in the latter stages of adolescence rather than being a fully grown adult.

Baby Allen’s hummingbirds:
Baby Allen’s hummingbirds are easily identified by their undertail coverts, which are white fluffy feathers near their bottom that will disappear as they age.
See my article: Baby Hummingbirds: (Egg to Fledgling)

Baby Allens WATERMARK
Baby Allen’s Hummingbird

Note: He is guarding a neighboring feeder with diligence. Observe the developmental differences between the juvenile in the last shot on the tomato cage and the current photo on the outside light wire.

They both have fluffy white feathers near their bottoms, yet there is a noticeable age difference between youth and maturity.

DSC00998 baby WATERMARK use
Baby Male Allen’s Hummingbird

Note: On a tomato cage; hiding in a tomato plant near a feeder.

To see the current sighting map of Massachusetts’s Allen’s hummingbirds, click the link.

Hear the sounds of the Allen’s hummingbird (Cornell Lab of Ornithology link).

0.05% of all Massachusetts hummingbirds sightings will be Allen’s hummingbirds.
On average, out of 10,000 hummingbird sightings in Massachusetts, only 5 will be an Allen’s hummingbird.

Male Allen’s hummingbirds engage in a dramatic, fast-paced courtship dance that mimics a pendulum’s swing. Of all the hummingbirds in North America, their territorial dive displays are among the most intricate.
See my article: Hummingbird Dance: 5 Interpretive Explanations

Allen’s hummingbirds, both male and female, are gregarious birds. Other than mating, they do not interact with each other. Allen’s hummingbirds are fiercely territorial and hostile toward other hummingbirds as well as larger predatory birds like hawks, much like Rufous hummingbirds. 

Allen’s hummingbirds are primarily found in coastal parts of California and Oregon, USA. They prefer habitats like gardens, forested or shrubby areas, and coastal chaparral. They migrate to southern Mexico in the winter, covering quite long distances for such small birds.

Allen’s hummingbirds are highly territorial, especially the males during the breeding season. They engage in aggressive aerial displays to defend their feeding territories from intruders. These displays include high-speed chases and intricate flight patterns.
See my article: Why Hummingbirds Chase Each Other: Is it Friend or Foe?

Allen’s hummingbirds commonly reside and nest along the west coast and winter in Mexico. Their nesting season is perfectly timed with when the regions have the most rainfall which helps provide prolific nectar producing flowers for their offspring.

Usually found in trees or shrubs, females use plant materials and spider webs to construct tiny, cup-shaped nests. Each time they attempt to reproduce, they lay one to two eggs, which they then incubate for two to three weeks. 

For several weeks after hatching, the young remain totally reliant on their mother for nourishment and protection until they are able to fly.

In their natural range, Allen’s hummingbirds often visit gardens and areas with bird feeders. They are a favorite among bird watchers and nature enthusiasts for their colorful appearance and lively behavior.

The future of Allen’s hummingbirds, like many species, is closely tied to environmental factors and human influence on their habitats. Habitat loss and the use of pesticides are among the challenges they face. Efforts to preserve natural habitats, along with responsible gardening and the maintenance of bird feeders, aids in their conservation.

Understanding and protecting Allen’s hummingbirds is crucial for maintaining the ecological balance and for the continued enjoyment of future generations who will marvel at this vibrant and lively bird.

In 2004, and again in 2009, the oldest known living Allen’s hummingbird was taken during a California banding program that involved catch and release. She was 5 years and 11 months old at the time.
See my article:  3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

Broad-Billed Hummingbirds:

BROAD-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD – (Cynanthus latirostris)

Conservation Status: Least concerned
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Genus: Cynanthus
Species: C. latirostris

The Broad-billed hummingbird, scientifically named Cynanthus latirostris, is known for its distinctive broad bill, which is the origin of its common name.
Their broad bills are particularly adapted for feeding on a variety of flowers.

Although most of the population of Broad-billed hummingbirds remains in Mexico and Central America throughout the year, they are a Mexican species that regularly visits the United States close to the southern Mexican border.

Male Broad-billed hummingbirds:
The brilliant blue-green gorget of male Broad-billed hummingbirds stretches back towards their shoulders. They have a long, brilliant orange-red beak with a distinctive black tip.
Their length varies from 3.25 to 4 inches, and they weigh between 3 and 4 grams.

The metal plate that shields the wearer’s throat during combat to prevent injuries is the inspiration behind the name of the gorget on a male hummingbird. 

This name is acceptable and fitting to characterize the physical characteristics of male hummingbirds, since they fight fiercely for their own territory.
Read my article: Hummingbird Gorgets Explained

Broad billed 2 Anthony Lujan
Male Broad-Billed Hummingbird
Photo by: Anthony Lujan
Male Broad billed 3 Anthony Lujan
Male Broad-Billed Hummingbird
Photo by: Anthony Lujan

Female Broad-billed hummingbirds:
Generally speaking, female Broad-billed hummingbirds lack iridescent feathers and have a duller appearance than males. Their bill is entirely black, with a larger white accent over their eyes.

They are recognized by their mainly metallic green upperparts and white undersides. Their tails are forked and have a black tint.

Juvenile Broad-billed hummingbirds:
Male and female juvenile Broad-billed hummingbirds initially resemble adult females until the male starts to develop the iridescent feathers that are characteristic of this species of hummingbird.

Male juveniles display a full charcoal dark gray body, a light green neck and backside with flecks of metallic blue on their throat.

Juv male Broad billed 1 Anthony Lujan
Juvenile Male Broad-Billed Hummingbird
Photo by: Anthony Lujan

Baby Broad-billed hummingbirds:
Baby Broad-billed hummingbirds are easily identified by their undertail coverts, which are white fluffy feathers near their bottom that will disappear as they age.
See my article: Baby Hummingbirds: (Egg to Fledgling)

Baby Broad billed 1 hummingbirdsbysuprise AZ
Baby Broad-Billed Hummingbird
Photo by: hummingbirdsbysuprise

To see the current sighting map of Massachusetts’s Broad-billed hummingbirds, click the link.

Hear the sounds of the Broad-billed hummingbird (Cornell Lab of Ornithology link).

0.04% of all Massachusetts hummingbirds sightings will be Broad-billed hummingbirds.
On average, out of 10,000 hummingbird sightings in Massachusetts, only 4 will be of the Broad-billed hummingbird.

Broad-billed hummingbirds are native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and down into Central America. They prefer habitats such as canyons, riverine woodlands, and sometimes gardens or urban areas with suitable flowering plants.

Nests made by Broad-billed hummingbirds are identified by their lack of lichen decoration on the exterior. 

Instead, the birds prefer to build their nests utilizing outside grass fibers, leaf fragments, and bark, and then utilize spider webs to secure and maintain the structure of the nest. The female constructs a nest that is suspended from a single, long, thin branch.
See my article: Hummingbird Parents: (Mating to Nesting)

Particularly while defending “their” feeders, Broad-billed hummingbirds come across as the meanest sheriff in the community due to their intense territoriality. They will engage in territorial conflicts to defend nectar sources that are home to blooming plants that attract hummingbirds.
See my article: Why Hummingbirds Chase Each Other: Is it Friend or Foe?

Two Broad billed 1 Anthony Lujan
2 Male Broad-Billed Hummingbirds
Photo by: Anthony Lujan

Surprisingly, the Broad-billed hummingbird has demonstrated a real overall population growth in recent years, in contrast to other hummingbird population surveys.

The future of the Broad-billed hummingbird, like many wildlife species, depends on the preservation of their habitats and understanding the impacts of environmental changes. Conservation efforts and responsible practices in gardening and feeder maintenance can aid in their survival.

When the oldest male Broad-billed hummingbird was caught and released in Arizona during a banding operation, he was 9 years and 1 month old.
See my article:  3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

Calliope Hummingbirds:

CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRD – (Selasphorus calliope)

Conservation Status: Least concerned
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Genus: Selasphorus
Species: S. calliope

Calliope hummingbirds are named after a Greek mythological muse, who represented poetry and eloquence. Calliope means “beautiful voice” in ancient Greek.

Male Calliope hummingbirds:
The long, stunning row of feathers that protrude down the sides of the throat and their iridescent purple cap are characteristics that make male Calliope hummingbirds clearly identifiable.

These hummingbirds, which are 3 inches long and weigh 2-3 grams, have shiny green backs like many others. 

The metal plate that shields the wearer’s throat during combat to prevent injuries is the inspiration behind the name of the gorget on a male hummingbird. 

This name is acceptable and fitting to characterize the physical characteristics of male hummingbirds, since they fight fiercely for their own territory.
Read my article: Hummingbird Gorgets Explained

Calliope Male ID
Male Calliope Hummingbird
Photo by: sony_alpha_male
Male Calliope 1 Bob Free CA
Adult Male Calliope Hummingbird
Photo by: Bob Free

Female Calliope hummingbirds:
The female Calliope hummingbird is less colorful than the male and lacks a gorget and iridescent feathers. Their head’s crown, or top, has a grayish-green hue. The buff hue of the flanks refers to the sides, underbelly, and area beneath the wings.
See my article: Hummingbird Parents: (Mating to Nesting)

Calliope Female ID
Female Calliope Hummingbird
Photo by: sony_alpha_male
Female Calliope 1 Anthony Lujan
Female Calliope Hummingbird 
Photo by: Anthony Lujan

Juvenile Calliope hummingbirds:
Male and female juvenile Calliope hummingbirds initially resemble adult females until the male starts to develop the iridescent feathers that are characteristic of this species of hummingbird.

Calliope Juv Male ID
Juvenile Male Calliope Hummingbird
Photo by: sony_alpha_male

Note: His bright throat feathers are slowly coming in.

Baby Calliope hummingbirds:
Baby Calliope hummingbirds are easily identified by their undertail coverts, which are white fluffy feathers near their bottom that will disappear as they age.
See my article: Baby Hummingbirds: (Egg to Fledgling)

To see the current sighting map of the Calliope hummingbird in Massachusetts, click the link.

Hear the sounds of the Calliope hummingbird (Cornell Lab of Ornithology link).

0.03% of all Massachusetts hummingbird sightings will be Calliope hummingbirds.
On average, out of 10,000 hummingbird sightings in Massachusetts, only 3 will be a Calliope hummingbird.

Like many other hummingbirds, Calliopes use their feathers to manipulate their flight path in order to produce a variety of buzzing noises that serve as a type of language.  

The male will fervently fly back and forth and perform a “U” shaped courtship display to get the attention of the female when she is quietly perched. The male hummingbird will perform a vocal serenade for the female while swaying his body back and forth in front of her.
See my article: Hummingbird Dance: 5 Interpretive Explanations

A breeding area is established by male Calliope hummingbirds, who mate with any female that accepts their wooing.

In terms of social behavior, Calliope hummingbirds are generally solitary, especially outside of the breeding season. They are territorial, with males often defending prime feeding territories from other hummingbirds.
See my article: Why Hummingbirds Chase Each Other: Is it Friend or Foe?

The world’s smallest long-distance migratory bird is the Calliope hummingbird. Their springtime migration patterns resemble those of Rufous hummingbirds. 

Throughout their northward spring migration where they breed, they traverse the Pacific Flyways. On their southbound journey in the fall, they pass through the Pacific and Rocky Mountain Flyways towards their wintering destination in Mexico. 

During the breeding season, female Calliope hummingbirds select the tips of pine cones as her building site for her nest. Along with stealing materials from other birds’ nests to build her own, she will also disassemble and recycle previous seasons’ nests. 

Therefore, larger and more aggressive hummingbirds, such as Allen’s and Rufous hummingbirds, frequently chase and attack female Calliopes. Compared to other species, the Calliope keeps a low profile in order to evade these attacks. 

Calliope hummingbirds hybridize and readily crossbreed with other hummingbird species, such as the Costa’s hummingbird.

Calliope hummingbirds are especially susceptible to habitat loss and natural catastrophes like wildfires and climate change because they have a smaller wintering range than other hummingbird species. 

The oldest known female Calliope hummingbird was twice captured during a 2007 and 2014 banding operation in Idaho. She was 8 years and 11 months old at the time of her capture.
See my article:  3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

Black-Chinned Hummingbirds:

BLACK-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD – (Archilochus alexandri)

Conservation Status: Least concerned
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Genus: Archilochus
Species: A. alexandri

The Black-chinned hummingbird’s scientific name is in commemoration of Dr. Alexandre, a French doctor who was the first to discover the species in Mexico.

Male Black-chinned hummingbirds:
The royal purple gorget resembling a buttoned-up shirt with a small flash of color right near the neckline is the distinguishing feature of male Black-chinned hummingbirds.

The male’s purple gorget or throat in some lighting at times looks entirely black.

Their flanks and backs are metallic green, while their undersides are white. They have a black bill and a forked dark tail.
Their length ranges from 3.25 to 3.5 inches, and they weigh between 2.8 and 5.6 grams.

The metal plate that shields the wearer’s throat during combat to prevent injuries is the inspiration behind the name of the gorget on a male hummingbird.

This name is acceptable and fitting to characterize the physical characteristics of male hummingbirds, since they fight fiercely for their own territory.
Read my article: Hummingbird Gorgets Explained

Male-Black-Chinned-ID
Male Black-Chinned Hummingbird
Photo by: sony_alpha_male
Male Black chinned bird.whisperer UT
Male Black-Chinned Hummingbird
Photo by: bird.whisperer

Female Black-chinned hummingbirds:
Compared to their male counterparts, female Black-chinned hummingbirds are less colorful and lack a gorget and iridescent feathers. White tips and beige edges on the dorsal feathers, which turn dark black as they age, adorn their dark, rounded tail, which has a white underbelly.  

They have dull metallic marbled colors on their head and backs that resemble snake scales: beige, green, white, yellow-green, and dark brown.
Read my article: Hummingbird Parents: (Mating to Nesting)

Female Black chinned AZ 1
Female Black-Chinned Hummingbird
Photo by: hummingbirdsbysurpise

Juvenile Black-chinned hummingbirds:
Male and female juvenile Black-chinned hummingbirds initially resemble adult females until the male starts to develop the iridescent feathers that are characteristic of this species of hummingbird.

Juv Black chinned 1 hummingbirdsbysuprise AZ
Juvenile Male Black-Chinned Hummingbird
Photo by: hummingbirdsbysuprise

Baby Black-chinned hummingbirds:
Baby Black-chinned hummingbirds are easily identified by their undertail coverts, which are white fluffy feathers near their bottom that will disappear as they age.
See my article: Baby Hummingbirds: (Egg to Fledgling)

Baby Black chinned bird.whisperer UT
Baby Black-Chinned Hummingbird
Photo by: bird.whisperer

To see the current sighting map of the Black-chinned hummingbird in Massachusetts, click the link.

Hear the sounds of the Black-chinned hummingbird (Cornell Lab of Ornithology link).

0.02% of all Massachusetts hummingbird sightings will be Black-chinned hummingbirds.
On average, out of 10,000 hummingbird sightings in Massachusetts, 2 will be a Black-chinned hummingbird.

Black-chinned hummingbirds breed to the east of the Cascade mountain range. By employing a decoy tactic, they are known to build their nests close to larger, busier bird nests, hence decreasing the likelihood of predators nearby. 

Of all extant mammals or vertebrates, Black-chinned hummingbirds have the least amount of genetic material known to science. Due to their little size, they run the risk of becoming prey for larger birds that consume insects.
See my article: 10 Common Things That Kill Hummingbirds 

Particularly while protecting “their” feeders, hummingbirds come across as the most ruthless sheriff in the area due to their intense territoriality. To defend nectar sources full of blooming plants that attract hummingbirds, they will engage in territorial conflicts.

Although Black-chinned hummingbirds are a territorial species, they will become less aggressive and learn to share if they happen to be in an area with a high hummingbird population and food sources.
See my article: Why Hummingbirds Chase Each Other: Is it Friend or Foe?

Female Black Chinned and Broad billed fighting humbysuprise AZ
Female Black-Chinned and Male Broad-Billed Hummingbird 
Photo by: hummingbirdsbysuprise

The lifespan of a Black-chinned hummingbird is an astounding ten years, compared to other animals and birds of comparable size.

Black-chinned hummingbirds easily hybridize and interbreed with other hummingbird species, including Costa’s and Anna’s. 

In Texas, during a banding and capture effort, the oldest known female Black-chinned hummingbird was 11 years and 2 months old.
See my article:  3 Reasons Why Hummingbirds Are Banded

The most frequently seen Massachusetts hummingbird is the Riby-throated hummingbird, followed by a very distant second-place Rufous hummingbird.

Ruby-throated Hummingbird: 99% of all hummingbirds seen in Massachusetts are Ruby-throated hummingbirds.
Out of 10,000 Massachusetts hummingbirds seen, 9,932 will be a Ruby-throated hummingbird.

Rufous Hummingbird: 0.53% of all hummingbirds seen in Massachusetts are Rufous hummingbirds.
Out of 10,000 Massachusetts hummingbirds seen, only 52 will be a Rufous hummingbird.

Allen’s Hummingbird: 0.05% of all hummingbirds seen in Massachusetts are Allen’s hummingbirds.
Out of 10,000 Massachusetts hummingbirds seen, only 5 will be an Allen’s hummingbird.

Broad-billed Hummingbird: 0.04% of all hummingbirds seen in Massachusetts are Broad-billed hummingbirds.
Out of 10,000 Massachusetts hummingbirds seen, only 4 will be a Broad-billed hummingbird.

Calliope Hummingbird: 0.03% of all hummingbirds seen in Massachusetts are Calliope hummingbirds.
Out of 10,000 Massachusetts hummingbirds seen, only 3 will be a Calliope hummingbird.

Black-chinned Hummingbird: 0.02% of all hummingbirds seen in Massachusetts are Black-chinned hummingbirds.
Out of 10,000 Massachusetts hummingbirds seen, only 2 will be a Black-chinned hummingbird.

Hummingbirds are seen in Massachusetts throughout the state.
Some are seen throughout the entirety of the state while others are only seen in specific limited areas of Massachusetts.

Read my article Massachusetts Hummingbird Migration

For more information about hummingbirds, read my other hummingbird articles.

Elizabeth Donaldson

Hi Everyone! I have always loved our backyard and have been fascinated with all the wildlife living there. I am especially amazed by the skill, strength, and beauty of hummingbirds. I hope this article answered your questions.

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